So reichen die Angaben und Theorien zur Entstehung des Waldere denn auch vom 8. Jahrhundert bis weit ins Por lo que se deduce, la obra se divide en dos partes, escritas en tiempos diferentes, cuyas fechas se desconocen. The parchment pages had been reused as stiffening in the binding of an Elizabethan prayer book, which had presumably come to Europe following the Dissolution of the Monasteries in England in the 16th century.
The portion that was found was a part of a much bigger work. The date of the poem's composition is unknown. Waldere was first edited by George Stephens Copenhagen, , afterwards by R. The first main translation of Waldere was by Frederick Norman in and the second by Arne Zettersten in Both are accompanied by commentary. A critical edition by Jonathan B. Himes appeared in The fragments can be situated in the epic of which they formed part because the subject, adventures surrounding the hero Walter of Aquitaine, is known in other texts: a Latin epic poem Waltharius by Ekkehard of Abbey of St. Incidental references to the Waldere occur in several Middle High German poems, and there is also a Polish version of the story, the earliest form of which is in Chronicon Boguphali Episcopi, dating from the 13th or 14th century.
In swimming he topped thee, had more of main!
It is rather a report of the spirited way in which Beowulf carried off the laurels in the " hazing" of the guest by a competent official of the host. Probably this test was part of the formal reception ; but it seems a strange survival in epic by the side of the courtly and extravagant com- pliments exchanged between Beowulf and Hrothgar. In Scandinavian sources one gets the rough flyting in its coarseness and strength.
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See the Lokasenna, above all, and the cases reported by Saxo. In one the prizes are peculiar: He also notes a parallel swimming-match in the Egilssaga. Truth I claim it, that I had more of might in the sea than any man else, more ocean-endurance. Naked swords, as we swam along, we held in hand, with hope to guard us against the whales.
Not a whit from me could he float afar o'er the flood of waves, haste o'er the billows ; nor him I abandoned. Together we twain on the tides abode five nights full till the flood divided us, churning waves and chillest weather, darkling night, and the northern wind ruthless rushed on us: BEOWULF 47 yet me 'gainst the monsters my mailed coat, hard and hand-linked, help afforded, — battle-sark braided my breast to ward, garnished with gold.
There grasped me firm and haled me to bottom the hated foe, with grimmest gripe. IX Me thus often the evil monsters thronging threatened. With thrust of my sword, the darling, I dealt them due return! Nowise had they bliss from their booty then to devour their victim, vengeful creatures, seated to banquet at bottom of sea ; but at break of day, by my brand sore hurt, on the edge of ocean up they lay, put to sleep by the sword. And since, by them on the fathomless sea-ways sailor-folk are never molested.
For Wyrd oft saveth earl undoomed if he doughty be! It occurs in the Aiidreas of Cynewulf, in part in the Hildebrand Lay, v. Of night-fought battles ne'er heard I a harder 'neath heaven's dome, nor adrift on the deep, a more desolate man! Yet I came unharmed from that hostile clutch, though spent with swimming. Breca ne'er yet, not one of you pair, in the play of war such daring deed has done at all with bloody brand, — I boast not of it!
Prac- tically the same case occurs when Horace tells Lydia III, ix that he would die for Chloe if the fatee would but spare this love of his and let her live ; — Si parcent animaefata superstiti. But the present passage hardly needs this subtle interpretation, and evidently means that fate often spares a man who is not doomed, really devoted to death, if he is a brave man, in a word, favors the brave if favor be possible. Weird sisters and fey folk survived long in Scottish tradition. He has defended his own reputation, shrugs his shoulders at the necessity of referring to his prowess, and makes a home-thrust at Unferth.
The climax of his invective is imputation to Unferth of the two supreme sins in the Germanic list: He forces pledges, favors none of the land of Danes, but lustily murders, , fights and feasts, nor feud he dreads from Spear-Dane men. But speedily now shall I prove him the prowess and pride of the Geats, shall bid him battle.
Blithe to mead go he that listeth, when light of dawn this morrow morning o'er men of earth, ether-robed sun from the south shall beam! Then was laughter of liegemen loud resounding with winsome words. Came Wealhtheow forth, 1 Murderer. The kin-bond, of course, was or should be very strong. See Beda's story of Imma, Eccl. Lustily took he banquet and beaker, battle-famed king.
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The cup he took, hardy-in-war, from Wealhtheow's hand, and answer uttered the eager-for-combat. Beowulf spake, bairn of Ecgtheow: The Gnomic Verses, preserved in the Exeter Book, are explicit about the duties of a noble dame in such cases. She must be see Grein-WUlker, I, — fond of her folk, and full of cheer, fast in a secret, and free of hand with steeds and treasure: The Defence-of-Athelings is, of course, the king.
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BEOWULF 61 " This was my thought, when my thanes and I bent to the ocean and entered our boat, that I would work the will of your people fully, or fighting fall in death, in fiend's gripe fast. I am firm to do an earl's brave deed, or end the days of this life of mine in the mead-hall here. Man to man, he made harangue, Hrothgar to Beowulf, bade him hail, let him wield the wine hall: So in the English Ballads there is a false " true love," — i. Compare the phrase " excellent iron," v. No wish shall fail thee if thou bidest the battle with bold-won life. The King-of-Glory against this Grendel a guard had sefe, so heroes heard, a hall-defender, who warded the monarch and watched for the mon- ster.
In truth, the Geats' prince gladly trusted his mettle, his might, the mercy of God!
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Not with the sword, then, to sleep of death his life will I give, though it lie in my power. No skill is his to strike against me, 1 See above, vv. Let wisest God, sacred Lord, on which side soever doom decree as he deeraeth right. None of them thought that thence their steps ' to the folk and fastness that fostered them, to the land they loved, would lead them back! Full well they wist that on warriors many battle-death seized, in the banquet-hall, of Danish clan.
In sooth 'tis told that highest God o'er human kind hath wielded ever! Warriors slept whose best was to guard the gabled hall, — all save one. The weaving, as in classical myths, is work of the Noms, or fates, but God disposes it as he will. Often, however, the Germanic fates stand alone at their loom. The monster was minded of mankind now sundry to seize in the stately house. Under welkin he walked, till the wine-palace there, gold-hall of men, he gladly discerned, flashing with fretwork. The accretion theory is not ridiculous by any means ; but it does not ex- plain the Beoioidf half so well as the assumption of a single author who wrote the present poem on the basis of old lays, and applied in its general construction the same methods of variation and repetition which obtain for every rhythmic period and almost for every sentence in Anglo-Saxon poetry at large.
The first announcement of Grendel's coming empha- sizes the fact that it is by night ; the second lays stress on the start from the moor ; the third brings him to the hall, and to the action. See the same sort of repetition for an arrival, vv. If we will only apply to the whole web of narrative what we know of the web of sentence and period, much of the supposed awkwardness, "poor mend- ings," "patchwork," and so on, will prove simply the habit of all that national epic. All hastily, then, o'er fair-paved floor the fiend trod on, ireful he strode ; there streamed from his eyes fearful flashes, like flame to see.
He spied in hall the hero-band, kin and clansmen clustered asleep, hardy liegemen. Then laughed his heart ; for the monster was minded, ere morn should dawn, savage, to sever the soul of each, life from body, since lusty banquet waited his will! But Wyrd forbade him to seize any more of men on earth after that evening.
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Not that the monster was minded to pause! Then farther he hied ; for the hardy hero with hand he grasped, felt for the foe with fiendish claw, for the hero reclining, — who clutched it boldly, prompt to answer, propped on his arm. The fiend made off, but the earl close followed.